Eminent historian of Ukraine. He studied at Lviv University (1893–5, under Mykhailo Hrushevsky) and Vienna University (1895–8). He worked as a gymnasium teacher in Chernivtsi (1900–18), Lviv, and Kholm and was a professor at Warsaw University (1929–39) and Lviv University (1944–7). In 1903 he was elected full member of the Shevchenko Scientific Society, and in 1923 he became director of its historical-philosophical section. After the Second World War he was a research associate of the Lviv Branch of the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.